After Action Review

Targeted Violence/Active Threat

After Action Review

The development of after action reports is critical to the continuous growth and promotion of promising practices within the law enforcement field. Response to targeted violence attacks require immediate action amid incredibly complex situations. Critical review of how the incident unfolded and the process by which the target was neutralized can uncover strengths, weaknesses, and challenges that both internal and external stakeholders can learn from. As active threats continue to grow more multifaceted, it is imperative that these reports are shared broadly among local, state, tribal and federal law enforcement agencies, as well as both domestically and internationally. It is only through learning from each other that the field can continue to build upon effective strategies.




The Attacks on Paris: Lessons Learned

Homeland Security Advisory Council

The purpose of this report is to document the findings of the Los Angeles delegation that traveled to Paris in 2016 to meet with key members of the Parisian law enforcement and intelligence communities, as they shared their lessons learned from the attacks on Paris in November 2015.

The Report of Governor Bill Owens’ Columbine Review Commission

Columbine Review Commission

In examining the Columbine shooting, this report aims to inform, educate, and provide recommendations for preparing for and preventing additional school shootings.

After- Action Report on the Response to the September 11 Terrorist Attack on the Pentagon

Arlington County

This report describes the activities of Arlington County and the supporting jurisdictions, government agencies, and other organizations in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the Pentagon.

Mass Shootings at Virginia Tech: Report of the Review Panel

Virginia Tech Review Panel

This report outlines the findings and recommendations put forward by the Virginia Tech Review Panel regarding the Virginia Tech mass shooting.

Aurora Century 16 Theater Shooting: After Action Report for the City of Aurora

TriData Division, System Planning Corporation

This review focuses primarily on the response of the city’s emergency forces during the first few days after the shooting and family and victim assistance, assistance to first responders, and healing support for the family. It is hoped that the findings and recommendations will be useful to other jurisdictions as well.

Connecticut State Police After Action Report: Newtown Shooting Incident

Connecticut State Police

This report is both to inform and improve the agency’s response capabilities and to provide the reader with a review of the many challenges faced by the Connecticut State Police. 

Why Was Boston Strong? Lessons from the Boston Marathon Bombing

Harvard Kennedy School

This report, through the analysis of selected aspects of the Marathon events, provideslessons that can help response organizations improve preparation for emergencies that may occur at “fixed” events and for “no notice” events. 

After Action Report for the Response to the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings

Massachusetts Emergency Management Agency

This report details best practices, lessons learned, and recommendations for the purpose of assisting public safety, public health, and medical personnel involved in the response in further developing actions that went well and taking corrective measures to address areas needing improvement.

The District of Columbia Communications Interoperability Summit: A 6 Year Review of the Washington Navy Yard Shooting

Government of the District of Columbia, HSEMA, CISA

This document highlights finding from the summit, which convened some of the key stakeholders and partners who responded, as well as sone of those who are currently charged with leadership roles in the District’s public safety arena, to highlight the progress made so far, and to identify and begin to address any gaps that still exist.

After Action Report for September 2013 Washington Navy Yard Shootings

Metropolitan Police Department, Washington, DC

This report describes the events related to the law enforcement response, constructively evaluates and assesses the tactical and operational actions, and identifies the unique issues and challenges faced by the responding law enforcement officers on September 16, 2013.

Lessons Learned from the Police Response to the San Bernardino and Orlando Terrorist Attacks

Combating Terrorism Center

This article describes the San Bernardino and Orlando attacks, identifies lessons learned during the Police Foundation’s reviews of law enforcement responses to the attacks, and highlights some of the challenges confronting the law enforcement response to terrorist events and other acts of mass public violence. 

An Organizational Review of San Bernardino County’s Response to the December 2, 2015 Terrorist Attack

San Bernardino County, CPARS Consulting Inc

This report endeavors not only to capture the breadth of the impacts on the County, but also to highlight the hundreds of actions taken by dedicated County employees to address those impacts.

Bringing Calm to Chaos: A Police Foundation Review of the San Bernardino Terrorist Attacks

COPS, National Police Foundation

This report gives a regional view of the response to the San Bernardino terrorist attacks from the perspective of the first responders and identifies lessons learned before, during, and after the attack. 

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport (FLL) Active Shooter/Mass Evacuation Critical Incident

Broward County Sheriff’s Office

This report provides candid insight, feedback, and details regarding the response to the Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport active shooter.  

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport: Active Shooter Incident and Post-Event Response

Broward County

This report describes the response to the events of Friday, January 6, 2017, constructively evaluates and assesses strategic and tactical operations, and identifies unique issues and challenges faced by the multitude of responders. The report also provides practical recommendations to support future emergency preparedness and response, incident management, and recovery.

Lessons Learned from the Pulse Nightclub Shooting: An Interview with Staff from Orlando Regional Medical Center


Responding trauma surgeons, emergency physicians, and the director of emergency preparedness in charge of Orlando Regional Medical Center’s response to the Pulse Nightclub shooting were interviewed by ASPR TRACIE. Questions and answers are outlined in this document.

Pulse Tragedy: After Action Report

City of Orlando Office of Emergency Management

This report reflects the findings of an after action review of response and recovery activities of public safety, public health, and community partners related to the shooting and the care and support of those impacted by the incident.

Rescue, Response, and Resilience: A Critical Incident Review of the Orlando Public Safety Response to the Attack on the Pulse Nightclub

COPS, National Police Foundation 

This report identifies best practices and lessons learned in regard to the Pulse Nightclub shooting.

After-Action Review of the Orlando Fire Department Response to the Attack at Pulse Nightclub

National Police Foundation

This report details the Orlando Fire Department’s response to the Pulse Nightclub shooting and describes the public safety response more generally, to provide context. 

Las Vegas After-Action Assessment: Lessons Learned from the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department’s Ambush Incident


This report summarizes key findings developed during an after-action analysis of the ambush and subsequent police engagement with the assailants. 2014

1 October After-Action Review

Clark County Fire Department, LVMPD

This report is intended to assist Clark County public safety agencies, as well as jurisdictions across the United States, to improve their preparedness for incidents like the one that occurred in Las Vegas.

1 October After-Action Report

FEMA, Clark County Fire Department, Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (LVMPD)

This report is a critical, administrative review that details LVMPD’s response to the October 1, 2017, shooting in Las Vegas, Nevada, and provides multiple recommendations from the lessons learned.

Marjory Stoneham Douglas High School Public Safety Commission - Second Report

MSD Public Safety Commission

This document follows up to the initial report released in January 2019 and includes further investigation into various matters.

Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School Public Safety Commission - Initial Report

MSD Public Safety Commission

This report details what happened leading up to the shooting and the law enforcement response.

Recovering and Moving Forward

National Police Foundation, Center for Mass Violence Response Studies

Lessons learned and recommendations following the shooting at Marjory Stoneham Douglas High School.

An Independent Review of the Tragic Events of May 31, 2019

Hillard Heintze

This report details the shooting that occurred on May 31, 2019, in the City of Virginia Beach and includes a review of relevant city policies, lessons learned, and recommended strategies, tactics, and countermeasures to prepare and prevent future attacks.

After Action Review Template ICP TTA This template can be customized by jurisdictions completing and After Action Review for drills, exercises, and real events.

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